Arboricultural Consultant

P.G. Biddle

Dr P.G. Biddle, O.B.E., M.A., D.Phil., F.Arbor.A.
Registered Consultant of the Arboricultural Association
Honorary Fellow, Insitute of Chartered Foresters

Table of Contents (2)

Chapter 13. Site Investigations II) The Soil

  Introduction
  Geological Survey maps
  Boreholes
  Assessment of soil conditions
  Inspection for fine root activity
  Particle size analysis
  Classification of soil shrinkage
  Moisture content determination
  Soil suction
  Field determination of shear strength
  Assessment of desiccation
  Limitations in assessment of desiccation:
  i) by comparison of profiles
  ii) from soil classification tests
  Summary
  Additional reading
  Sources of equipment

Chapter 14. Site Investigations III) The Tree
  Objectives
  Introduction
  Botanical nomenclature
  Identification
  Relevance of root identification
  Methods for root identification
  Age and condition of roots
  Measurement of size of tree
  Determination of age and growth rate
  Interpretation of patterns of radial growth
  Water requirements derived from increment
  cores
  Other indications of growth rate
  Safety and condition of the tree
  Summary
  Additional reading

Chapter 15. Monitoring Building Movement
  Introduction
  When to monitor
  When to start monitoring
  Methods of level monitoring
  Equipment for level monitoring
  Location of monitoring stations
  The use of a datum
  Timing and frequency of readings
  Calculation and presentation of results
  Significance of extent of changes in level
  Crack monitoring
  Monitoring of soil moisture content
  Summary
  Additional reading

Chapter 16. Heave and Recovery - Diagnosis and

  Prediction
  Introduction
  A persistent moisture deficit - the essential
  pre-requisite for heave
  Factors influencing amount, rate and duration of
  heave or recovery
  The initiation of heave
  The diagnosis of heave
  Diagnosis of recovery movements
  Relevance of determining age of tree and age of
  building
  Prediction of risk and duration of heave or
  recovery if trees are felled
  Simple guidelines for heave prediction
  Quantitative prediction of heave or recovery
  Measurement of swelling potential
  Remedies for heave damage
  Summary

Chapter 17. Remedial Action After Damage
  Tolerating the damage
  Restabilising the soil and foundations by
  controlling the water uptake of the tree
  Tree felling to stop water uptake
  Tree felling in stages
  Tree pruning to control water uptake
  Control of size by plant growth regulators
  Watering tree to reduce damage
  Root barriers to control root spread
  Root severance
  Accelerated recovery by watering-in
  Allowing natural recovery
  Checking the efficacy of remedial action
  Stabilising the foundations by underpinning
  The choice of action
  Superstructure repair
  Summary
  Additional reading

Chapter 18. Prediction and Prevention of Damage

  Introduction
  The prediction of damage
  Prevention of damage
  i) a) for new buildings near existing trees
  b) for new buildings without existing trees
  ii) for existing buildings with existing trees
  A method of risk prediction
  Efficacy of Subsidence Risk Factor (SRF)for
  predicting damage
  Implications of subsidence risk assessment
  Preventative pruning in identifiable high risk
  situations
  iii) if tree planting near existing buildings
  Implications of future changes in risks of damage
  Summary

Chapter 19. The Legal Framework
  Statutory controls on tree work

  Introduction
  The objective of TPO's
  Objecting to a TPO
  Determining whether a tree is covered by a TPO
  Exemptions to a TPO
  Application for consent for tree work
  Appeals against decision of LPA
  Compensation in respect of TPO's
  Obligation to replant
  Trees in Conservation Areas
  Planning Conditions

  Legal liability for damage

  Extent and cause of damage
  Legal limitation and the time of events
  Foreseeability and the scope of duty
  Liability for underpinning against heave
  Summary

Chapter 20. A Revised Role for the Professions
  Introduction
  A role for insurers
  A role for loss adjusters
  A role for structural engineers
  A role for arboriculturists
  A role for surveyors and valuers
  A role for soil scientists
  A role for planners
  A role for building control
  A role for architects and for builders
  Summary